Marketing is a constantly evolving field, with new theories and strategies emerging all the time. While some of these theories may be more widely recognized than others, all of them have the potential to help businesses create effective marketing campaigns. In this article, we’ll take a look at 100 different marketing theories, from the classic 4 Ps of Marketing to the newer Hooked Model. Whether you’re a business owner looking to improve your marketing strategy, or a marketer seeking to expand your knowledge, this list is a great place to start.
List of 100 marketing theories
1. AIDA Model
The AIDA Model is a framework for creating effective advertising and marketing campaigns. It stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action, and represents the stages that a consumer goes through when considering a product or service. Advertisers aim to grab the consumer’s attention, create interest in the product, generate desire for it, and finally prompt the consumer to take action and make a purchase.
2. The Hierarchy of Effects Model
The Hierarchy of Effects Model is a framework for understanding the process of persuasion in advertising. It proposes that consumers go through a series of stages, including awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase. The goal of the advertiser is to move the consumer through each stage, ultimately resulting in a purchase.
3. The Four Ps of Marketing
The Four Ps of Marketing are Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. These are the key elements of a marketing mix and are used to develop a marketing strategy. Product refers to the actual product or service being offered. Price refers to how much the product or service will cost. Place refers to where the product or service will be sold. Promotion refers to the various methods used to market and advertises a product or service.
4. The Positioning Theory
The Positioning Theory is a framework for developing a brand’s positioning strategy. It involves identifying the target market and the key attributes of the product or service, then developing a positioning statement that differentiates the brand from its competitors.
5. The Stakeholder Theory
The Stakeholder Theory is the idea that a company’s success is dependent on the interests of all of its stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, customers, and suppliers. This theory suggests that companies should consider the needs and interests of all stakeholders when making decisions.
6. The Push-Pull Strategy
The Push-Pull Strategy is a marketing strategy that combines elements of both push and pull marketing. Push marketing involves promoting a product or service through advertising and sales promotions, in order to “push” the product out to customers. Pull marketing, on the other hand, involves creating demand for a product or service through marketing efforts such as creating buzz and word-of-mouth promotion, in order to “pull” customers in.
7. The Perceptual Mapping Theory
The Perceptual Mapping Theory is a technique used in market research to visually map out how consumers perceive different products or brands. It involves plotting various brands or products on a graph based on their perceived attributes, such as quality and price, in order to understand how they are perceived by consumers and how they compare to competitors.
8. The Diffusion of Innovation Theory
The Diffusion of Innovation Theory describes how, why, and at what rate new ideas, products or practices spread through a particular market or society. It suggests that the adoption of an innovation follows a bell-shaped curve, with early adopters, followed by early and late majority, and finally laggards. It can be used to predict the spread of a new product or service and to identify key factors that influence the rate of adoption.
9. The Consistency Theory
The Consistency Theory states that people will be more likely to make a purchase if they perceive the product or service to be consistent with their beliefs, values, and previous experiences. Advertisers and marketers can use this theory by highlighting the consistency of their products with the values and beliefs of their target market.
10. The Network Externalities Theory
The Network Externalities Theory states that the value of a product or service increases as more people use it. The theory is often used to explain why certain products or services, such as social media platforms, become more valuable as more people adopt them.
11. The Value Chain Model
The Value Chain Model is a framework that describes the activities that a company performs in order to deliver a product or service to the market. It includes primary activities such as production and logistics and support activities such as human resources and technology. The model can be used to identify areas where a company can create a competitive advantage.
12. The Social Exchange Theory
The Social Exchange Theory states that human relationships are based on a perceived balance of benefits and costs. It suggests that people will continue to engage in social interactions if they perceive the benefits to outweigh the costs. This theory can be applied to the development of marketing strategies that create positive perceptions of a product or service.
13. The Pareto Principle
The Pareto Principle, also known as the 80/20 rule, states that for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. This principle can be applied to a wide range of business contexts, such as identifying the most profitable customers or the most effective marketing campaigns.
14. The Prospect Theory
The Prospect Theory is a behavioral economic theory that describes how people make decisions when faced with uncertain outcomes. It suggests that people are more likely to take risks when they have the potential to gain something than when they have the potential to lose something.
15. The Brand Equity Theory
The Brand Equity Theory states that a strong brand can create a competitive advantage for a company. It suggests that a well-known and respected brand can command a premium price, increase customer loyalty, and create barriers to entry for competitors. Brand equity can be measured by factors such as brand awareness, brand loyalty, and perceived quality.
16. The Activation Theory
The Activation Theory is a model that explains how consumers process information and make decisions. It proposes that people go through a series of stages, including attention, comprehension, and action when making a purchase decision. The theory suggests that marketers can influence decision-making by targeting their messages at the appropriate stage of the process.
17. The Customer Lifetime Value Model
The Customer Lifetime Value Model is a framework for calculating the value of a customer to a business over the entire duration of their relationship. It considers factors such as the customer’s purchase history, the potential for repeat business, and potential for referral business. The model can be used to inform marketing strategies and to identify key segments of customers.
18. The Scarcity Principle
The Scarcity Principle is a persuasion technique that suggests that people place a higher value on things that are scarce or in limited supply. Marketers can use this principle by creating a perception of scarcity, such as through limited-time offers or exclusive promotions, in order to increase demand for a product or service.
19. The Customer Relationship Management Theory
The Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Theory is a business strategy that focuses on building and maintaining relationships with customers. It involves collecting and analyzing customer data in order to understand their needs and preferences, and then using that information to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.
20. The Rule of Seven
The Rule of Seven is a marketing principle that suggests that a potential customer needs to see or hear an advertisement at least seven times before they take action and make a purchase. Marketers can use this principle to inform their advertising and promotional strategies by ensuring that their message is seen or heard by potential customers multiple times.
21. The Elaboration Likelihood Model
The Elaboration Likelihood Model is a theory of persuasion that proposes two routes to persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route. The central route to persuasion occurs when people carefully consider the message and the evidence presented, while the peripheral route occurs when people rely on superficial cues, such as the speaker’s credibility or the attractiveness of the message.
22. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that proposes that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy, with basic physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the top. The theory suggests that people will be motivated to fulfill their needs in a specific order, starting with their basic needs and moving up the hierarchy as they are met.
23. The Einstellung Effect
The Einstellung Effect is a cognitive bias that refers to the tendency for people to perseverate on a previously learned solution even when a better solution is available. The effect can be seen in situations where people are confronted with new problems that are similar to ones they have encountered before, and they tend to use solutions that worked in the past instead of considering new options.
24. The S-Curve Model
The S-Curve Model is a tool used to describe and predict the growth of a product, technology, or industry over time. It plots growth over time on a graph, with an initial period of slow growth, followed by a period of rapid growth, and then a period of maturity and eventual decline. The model can be used to predict the life cycle of a product or industry and to identify key growth opportunities.
25. The Product Life Cycle Theory
The Product Life Cycle Theory is a model that describes the stages a product goes through from its introduction to its eventual decline. The stages include introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Each stage has its own set of characteristics, opportunities, and challenges. The model can be used to predict the future of a product and to inform marketing strategies.
26. The Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The Cognitive Dissonance Theory states that people experience psychological discomfort or dissonance when their beliefs or actions are inconsistent. This theory can be applied to marketing by creating marketing campaigns that are consistent with the values and beliefs of the target market, which can increase customer loyalty and reduce customer churn.
27. The Heuristic Decision Making Theory
The Heuristic Decision Making Theory is a model that describes how people make decisions based on mental shortcuts or rules of thumb, rather than a systematic analysis of all the information. It suggests that people often rely on heuristics, such as the availability heuristic or the representativeness heuristic, to make decisions quickly and efficiently.
28. The Customer Journey Theory
The Customer Journey Theory is a framework that describes the stages a customer goes through when interacting with a company or brand. It includes stages such as awareness, consideration, purchase, and post-purchase. The theory can be used to understand customer behavior and to inform marketing strategies.
29. The Consumer-Brand Relationship Theory
The Consumer-Brand Relationship Theory proposes that consumers develop relationships with brands, similar to how they form relationships with other people. It suggests that consumers form emotional bonds with brands, which can be strengthened through positive interactions, trust, and commitment. The theory can be used to inform the development of marketing strategies that foster positive brand-consumer relationships.
30. The Theory of Constraints
The Theory of Constraints is a management philosophy that states that any system is limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints. The goal of the theory is to identify and manage these constraints to improve overall system performance. It can be applied to businesses to identify and eliminate bottlenecks that limit growth and profitability.
31. The Theory of Reasoned Action
The Theory of Reasoned Action is a model that explains how attitudes and social norms influence behavior. It proposes that behavior is determined by an individual’s intention, which is a function of their attitude toward the behavior and their perception of social norms. Marketers can use this theory by understanding and influencing the attitudes and norms of their target market to change behavior.
32. The Brand Awareness Theory
The Brand Awareness Theory suggests that the more familiar people are with a brand, the more likely they are to purchase that brand. Advertisers and marketers use this theory by increasing brand awareness through various forms of advertising and promotions, in order to increase brand recognition and ultimately sales.
33. The Technology Acceptance Model
The Technology Acceptance Model is a framework that explains how and why people adopt new technologies. It proposes that people’s decisions to adopt new technologies are based on two key factors: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Marketers can use this model to predict and influence technology adoption by highlighting the usefulness and ease of use of their product.
34. The Halo Effect Theory
The Halo Effect Theory suggests that people’s perceptions of one trait of a person or thing can influence their perceptions of other traits. For example, if a product is perceived as high quality, people may also perceive it as being expensive or having a good design. Marketers can use this theory by highlighting a positive trait of their product to influence perceptions of other traits.
35. The Bandwagon Effect Theory
The Bandwagon Effect Theory states that people are more likely to adopt a behavior or product when they perceive that others are also doing so. Marketers can use this theory by creating a sense of popularity and social proof around their product or service.
36. The Consumer Adoption Process Model
The Consumer Adoption Process Model describes the stages that consumers go through when adopting a new product or service. These stages include awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. The model can be used to predict and influence consumer behavior by understanding and targeting the appropriate stage of the process.
37. The Communication Adoption Model
The Communication Adoption Model describes the process by which individuals adopt new communication technologies. This process consists of five stages: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. Marketers can use this model to predict and influence the adoption of new communication technologies.
38. The Two-Step Flow Model
The Two-Step Flow Model of communication suggests that information flows from mass media to opinion leaders, who then disseminate the information to the general public. Marketers can use this model to identify and target opinion leaders in order to influence the general public.
39. The Commonality of Purpose Model
The Commonality of Purpose Model states that people are more likely to engage with a brand or product when they share a common purpose with the brand. Marketers can use this model by aligning their brand or product with a purpose that resonates with their target market.
40. The Risk Perception Theory
The Risk Perception Theory states that people’s perception of risk influences their behavior. Marketers can use this theory by highlighting the low risk or high benefit of their product or service to influence customer behavior.
41. The Engagement Theory
The Engagement Theory states that effective communication requires active engagement and participation of the audience. Marketers can use this theory by creating interactive and engaging marketing campaigns that encourage active participation from the target market.
42. The Utility Maximization Theory
The Utility Maximization Theory is an economic theory that states that people will choose the option that provides the most utility or satisfaction to them. Marketers can use this theory by creating marketing campaigns that highlight the benefits and value of their product or service to the target market, in order to increase the perceived utility and likelihood of purchase. This theory can be used to inform pricing strategies, product development, and overall customer value proposition.
43. The Social Identity Theory
The Social Identity Theory is a psychological theory that states that people’s sense of self is shaped by their membership in social groups. People tend to identify with groups that share similar characteristics and values, and use these group identities to define themselves. This theory can be used in marketing by creating campaigns that target specific social groups and appeal to their shared identity and values.
44. The Segmentation Theory
The Segmentation Theory is a marketing concept that suggests that a market can be divided into smaller groups of consumers with distinct needs and characteristics. Marketers use this theory to target specific segments of the market with tailored products, messages, and strategies.
45. The Choice Architecture Model
The Choice Architecture Model is a framework that describes how the design of a choice environment can influence the decisions people make. It suggests that small changes in the way choices are presented, such as the order or wording of options, can have a big impact on the decisions people make. Marketers can use this theory to design choice environments that guide consumers towards desired outcomes.
46. The Theory of Inelastic Demand
The Theory of Inelastic Demand suggests that the quantity of a good or service demanded does not change significantly in response to changes in price. This theory can be used to inform pricing strategies for products or services that have few substitutes, such as necessities.
47. The Theory of Planned Behavior
The Theory of Planned Behavior is a model that explains how attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control influence behavior. It suggests that people’s intentions to engage in a behavior are the best predictor of their actual behavior. Marketers can use this theory by understanding and influencing the attitudes and perceptions of their target market to change behavior.
48. The Baumol Effect
The Baumol Effect is an economic theory that states that some sectors of the economy, such as services, will tend to experience higher costs and prices than other sectors, such as manufacturing, due to the nature of the work and productivity. Marketers can use this theory to predict and respond to changes in the cost of goods and services.
49. The Lead User Theory
The Lead User Theory is a framework that suggests that a small group of individuals, known as lead users, are more likely to identify and adopt new products or technologies before the general population. Marketers can use this theory to identify and target lead users in order to gain early adopters and spread the word about their products.
50. The Contagion Theory
The Contagion Theory states that people are more likely to adopt a behavior or product when they perceive that others are also doing so. Marketers can use this theory by creating a sense of popularity and social proof around their product or service.
51. The Value Proposition Theory
The Value Proposition Theory is a framework that describes the value that a product or service can deliver to customers. It is used to identify and communicate the unique benefits and value of a product or service to potential customers.
52. The Attention Economy Theory
The Attention Economy Theory suggests that in today’s digital age, the value of a business is based on its ability to capture and hold the attention of its customers. Marketers can use this theory by creating compelling and attention-grabbing marketing campaigns to capture the attention of their target market.
53. The Customer Engagement Theory
The Customer Engagement Theory suggests that customer engagement is a key driver of customer loyalty and advocacy. It proposes that when customers are actively engaged with a brand or product, they are more likely to make repeat purchases, recommend the product to others, and provide positive feedback. Marketers can use this theory by creating engaging and interactive marketing campaigns that encourage active participation from customers.
54. The Experiential Marketing Theory
The Experiential Marketing Theory suggests that consumers are more likely to remember and be positively influenced by an experience they have with a product or brand, rather than traditional marketing messages. Experiential marketing focuses on creating immersive and memorable experiences that customers can engage with. Marketers can use this theory by creating experiences that are relevant and engaging to the target market, in order to build strong emotional connections and drive brand loyalty.
55. The Decoy Effect Theory
The Decoy Effect Theory: This theory suggests that people’s preferences can be influenced by the presence of a third, less attractive option. The theory suggests that this “decoy” option can make a person’s perceived value of the other two options change.
56. The Six Sigma Model
The Six Sigma Model: This model is a quality management approach that aims for near-perfection in manufacturing and service processes. The goal is to reduce defects and variability by using statistical methods and data analysis.
57. The Brand Personality Theory
The Brand Personality Theory: This theory suggests that consumers have a psychological connection to a brand, and that this connection is based on the brand’s personality. A brand’s personality can be defined by five main traits: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness.
58. The Flow Theory
The Flow Theory: This theory, also known as the “optimal experience” theory, suggests that people are happiest when they are fully engaged in an activity that matches their skill level. This state of flow is characterized by a feeling of control, concentration, and enjoyment.
59. The Customer Equity Model
The Customer Equity Model: This model suggests that a company’s value is based on the lifetime value of its customers. The model suggests that companies should focus on building long-term relationships with customers in order to increase their value.
60. The Sales Funnel Model
The Sales Funnel Model: This model is used to describe the process of turning potential customers into actual customers. The model consists of several stages, including awareness, interest, evaluation, and purchase.
61. The Theory of Relative Advantage
The Theory of Relative Advantage: This theory suggests that people are more likely to adopt a new product or service if it has a perceived advantage over what they are currently using.
62. The Word-of-Mouth Theory
The Word-of-Mouth Theory: This theory suggests that people trust recommendations from friends and family more than advertising. It also suggests that positive word-of-mouth can lead to increased sales and brand loyalty.
63. The Brand Pyramid Model
The Brand Pyramid Model: This model suggests that a strong brand is built on a foundation of functional benefits, and is then supported by emotional and self-expressive benefits. At the top of the pyramid is the brand’s symbol, which represents the overall identity of the brand.
64. The Viral Marketing Theory
The Viral Marketing Theory: This theory suggests that a successful marketing campaign can lead to a rapid increase in product or brand awareness through word-of-mouth and social networks.
65. The Reach and Frequency Model
The Reach and Frequency Model: This model is used to measure the effectiveness of an advertising campaign by calculating the number of people reached by the campaign and the number of times they were exposed to it. The model is used to determine the optimal mix of reach and frequency in order to achieve the desired impact on the target audience.
66. The Disruption Theory
The Disruption Theory is a business model that describes how new companies or technologies can disrupt established industries by creating new and more efficient ways of doing things. The theory proposes that disruptive companies or technologies often start by targeting overlooked or underserved segments of the market and gradually gain market share and disrupt the established players in the industry.
67. The Social Proof Theory
The Social Proof Theory is a persuasion technique that suggests that people are more likely to adopt a behavior or product when they perceive that others are also doing so. Marketers can use this theory by creating a sense of popularity and social proof around their product or service, such as through customer testimonials, social media buzz, or celebrity endorsements.
68. The PR Smith Model
The PR Smith Model is a marketing model that describes the process of creating a Unique Selling Proposition (USP) for a product or service. It proposes that a USP should be based on the product’s benefits, not just its features, and should be communicated in a clear and compelling way.
69. The Trigger Events Model
The Trigger Events Model is a framework that describes how certain events or triggers can influence consumer behavior. It proposes that certain events, such as major life changes or the release of new information, can serve as triggers that motivate consumers to make a purchase. Marketers can use this model to identify and target potential triggers that align with their product or service.
70. The Price Discrimination Theory
The Price Discrimination Theory is a pricing strategy that involves charging different prices for the same product or service to different segments of the market. The theory proposes that by charging different prices to different groups of customers, a business can increase profits by charging more to those who are willing to pay more.
71. The Consumer Decision-Making Process Model
The Consumer Decision-Making Process Model describes the stages that consumers go through when making a purchase decision. These stages include problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post-purchase evaluation. Marketers can use this model to understand consumer behavior and to inform their marketing strategies.
72. The Price Elasticity of Demand Model
The Price Elasticity of Demand Model is an economic concept that describes how the quantity of a good or service demanded responds to changes in price. It proposes that the demand for a product is more elastic (sensitive) when there are many substitutes available, and less elastic (insensitive) when there are few substitutes.
73. The Network Effect Theory
The Network Effect Theory suggests that the value of a product or service increases as more people use it. This is often seen in technology products, such as social media platforms, where the more people that join, the more valuable the platform becomes to its users. Marketers can use this theory by promoting the growing number of users of their product or service to attract new users.
74. The Theory of Unintended Consequences
The Theory of Unintended Consequences suggests that actions and decisions can have unforeseen and unintended effects. This theory can be applied to marketing by considering the potential unintended consequences of marketing strategies, such as reputational damage or negative impact on the target audience.
75. The Price Skimming Model
The Price Skimming Model is a pricing strategy that involves setting a high price for a product or service when it is first introduced, and gradually lowering the price over time. The theory behind this strategy is that early adopter are willing to pay a premium for the product and as the market becomes saturated, the price is lowered to attract more price-sensitive customers.
76. The Promotional Mix Model
The Promotional Mix Model refers to the various methods that businesses use to promote their products or services. These methods include advertising, personal selling, sales promotions, public relations, and direct marketing.
77. The Technology Adoption Lifecycle Model
The Technology Adoption Lifecycle Model describes the stages that consumers go through when adopting a new technology. These stages include awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.
78. The Price Points Theory
The Price Points Theory posits that consumers have certain “mental price points” for different types of products and services and that businesses can increase sales by pricing their offerings at or just below these points.
79. The Brand Identity Theory
The Brand Identity Theory states that a brand’s identity is made up of various elements, such as its name, logo, and tagline, that together create a unique image in the mind of the consumer.
80. The Marketing Mix Model
The Marketing Mix Model is a framework used to help businesses create a marketing strategy. It consists of four elements: product, price, place, and promotion.
81. The Price Floor Theory
The Price Floor Theory states that when the government sets a minimum price for a good or service, it can lead to a surplus of that good or service, potentially leading to higher prices for consumers.
82. The Brand Awareness Pyramid Model
The Brand Awareness Pyramid Model is a way to measure the effectiveness of a brand’s marketing efforts. It consists of four levels: brand recognition, brand recall, brand preference, and brand loyalty.
83. The Motivation-Needs Theory
The Motivation-Needs Theory suggests that consumers are driven to purchase products and services in order to satisfy certain needs and desires.
84. The Technology Adoption Model
The Technology Adoption Model is a framework that explains how and why people adopt new technology. It is often used to predict the rate at which a new product or service will be adopted by consumers.
85. The Value-Based Pricing Model
The Value-Based Pricing Model is a strategy in which a business sets its prices based on the perceived value that the consumer will receive from the product or service.
86. The Consumer Decision Journey Model
The Consumer Decision Journey Model explains the process that a consumer goes through when making a purchase decision. It includes stages such as awareness, consideration, and purchase.
87. The Consumer Buying Behavior Model
The Consumer Buying Behavior Model explains how and why consumers make purchasing decisions. It takes into account factors such as consumer needs, attitudes, and perceptions.
88. The Contextual Advertising Model
The Contextual Advertising Model is a form of online advertising in which ads are served based on the content of the website or app that a user is currently viewing. It is a way to ensure that ads are relevant to the user’s interests and that they are more likely to be clicked on.
89. The Preference Reversal Theory
The Preference Reversal Theory suggests that people’s preferences can change depending on the context in which a choice is presented. For example, a person may prefer a certain product when it is described as being eco-friendly, but prefer a different product when the eco-friendly aspect is removed from the description.
90. The Perceived Risk Theory
The Perceived Risk Theory states that consumers will perceive a product or service to be riskier if they have less information about it, or if it is unfamiliar to them. This theory suggests that companies should strive to provide clear, accurate information about their products or services to reduce perceived risk and increase consumer confidence.
91. The Brand Awareness Curve Model
The Brand Awareness Curve Model is a visual representation of how brand awareness changes over time. It shows that brand awareness starts low and gradually increases as a company’s marketing efforts reach more people. Eventually, brand awareness reaches a peak and then begins to decline as the company’s marketing efforts wane.
92. The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance suggests that when people are faced with information that conflicts with their beliefs or values, they experience a sense of discomfort or dissonance. In order to reduce this discomfort, they may change their beliefs or values to align with the new information.
93. The Hooked Model
The Hooked Model is a product design framework that aims to create habit-forming products. It suggests that products should be designed to provide users with a sense of progress, followed by a reward, which in turn creates a desire for more progress and more rewards.
94. The Loss Aversion Theory
The Loss Aversion Theory states that people are more likely to take action to avoid losing something than to gain something of equal value. This theory can be applied in marketing by emphasizing the potential losses that a consumer may experience if they do not purchase a product or service.
95. The Elaboration Theory
The Elaboration Theory is a theory of attitude change that suggests that the more someone thinks about an attitude object, the more likely they are to change their attitude towards it. This theory suggests that companies should encourage consumers to think more about their products or services, through techniques such as providing detailed information or encouraging consumers to try the product.
96. The Attitude Change Model
The Attitude Change Model is a theoretical framework that describes how attitudes can change as a result of persuasion. It suggests that attitudes can be changed through the use of messages that are consistent with a person’s existing attitudes, as well as through the use of messages that challenge a person’s existing attitudes.
97. The Diffusion of Responsibility Theory
The Diffusion of Responsibility Theory suggests that people are less likely to take action when they believe that someone else is responsible for a problem or situation. This theory can be applied in marketing by emphasizing the unique role that a particular product or service can play in addressing a problem or situation.
98. The Use of Influencers Model
The Use of Influencers Model is a marketing strategy that involves enlisting the help of influential people to promote a product or service. Influencers can be celebrities, experts, or other people who have a large following on social media or other platforms. The goal is to leverage the influencer’s credibility and reach to promote the product or service to their followers.
99. The Customer Retention Model
The Customer Retention Model is a theoretical framework that describes how companies can retain their customers over time. It suggests that companies should strive to create positive customer experiences, build strong relationships with customers, and continuously improve their products or services.
100. The Loyalty Ladder Model
The Loyalty Ladder Model is a theoretical framework that describes how customers can progress from being casual customers to becoming loyal customers. It suggests that customers move through a series of stages, such as awareness, trial, evaluation, and commitment, and that companies should use different marketing strategies to appeal to customers at each stage.
What are the basic marketing theories?
There are several basic marketing theories that form the foundation of modern marketing thought. Some of the most widely recognized include:
- The 4 Ps of Marketing (Product, Price, Place, Promotion) – This theory suggests that these four elements are the key components of a marketing mix, and that a company should carefully consider each one when developing its marketing strategy.
- The Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning (STP) Model – This theory suggests that a company should segment its market, identify its target customer, and position its product or service in a way that appeals to that target customer.
- The Marketing Mix Model – This model suggests that a company should use a combination of marketing elements (product, price, place, promotion, people, process, and physical evidence) to create an overall marketing strategy.
- The AIDA Model (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action) – This theory suggests that a company should use marketing messages to capture a customer’s attention, generate interest, create desire, and motivate the customer to take action.
- The 5 Cs of Marketing (Company, Customers, Competitors, Collaborators, Climate) – This theory suggests that a company should consider the internal and external factors that affect its marketing strategy, including its own capabilities, the needs and wants of its customers, the actions of its competitors, the potential partners and collaborators, and the general economic and societal climate.
- The 7 Ps of Service Marketing (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process, Physical evidence) – This theory suggests that companies should consider the 7 Ps when marketing services, to ensure that their service offering is well-designed, well-priced, well-promoted, and well-delivered to meet the needs and wants of their target customers.
- The Marketing Communications Mix (Advertising, Public Relations, Sales Promotion, Personal Selling, Direct Marketing, and Online/Digital Marketing) – This theory suggests that a company should use a combination of communication methods to reach its target customers.
What is a marketing theory?
A marketing theory is a set of concepts and principles that attempt to explain or predict how consumers behave and how businesses can most effectively market their products or services to them. Marketing theories can take into account a wide variety of factors, such as consumer psychology, economic conditions, and technological developments. They are often based on research and data, and they can help businesses make strategic decisions about product development, pricing, advertising, and distribution. Some marketing theories are widely accepted and have been tested through many years of research and application, while others are more speculative or untested.