The UK water industry is an essential public service, responsible for collecting, treating, and delivering clean and safe drinking water to households and businesses. Like any other business, the water industry has financial aspects that are critical to its success.
One question that often arises in this context is, ‘can I change my water supplier?’ This query points to the consumer’s desire for choice and competition within the industry. In this section, we will explore some of the financial aspects of the UK water industry, including the possibility of changing water suppliers.
Revenue and Profits
According to Statista, the UK water industry had a total revenue of £13.9 billion in 2021. The industry’s profits after tax were £1.72 billion in the same year. These figures indicate that the UK water industry is a profitable business.
Water companies in the UK are required to pay dividends to their shareholders. Dividend payments are a share of the profits that a company distributes to its shareholders. In 2021, the UK water industry paid £1.3 billion in dividends to its shareholders.
Water Company Funding
Water companies in the UK need funding to maintain and improve the water and sewer utilities. The water industry is funded through a combination of customer bills, government grants, and borrowing. In 2021, the water industry received £7.9 billion in funding from customer bills.
Water and Sewerage Bills
Water and sewerage bills are a significant expense for households and businesses in the UK. According to Statista, the average annual water and sewerage bill in England and Wales was £415 in 2021. However, some households and businesses struggle to pay their water bills, leading to concerns about affordability.
Dividend Payments and Water Bill Struggles
The high dividend payments made by water companies have led to criticism that they are prioritising shareholders over customers. Some argue that these dividend payments are contributing to the struggles that some households and businesses face in paying their water bills.
Customer Relations and Satisfaction
The UK water industry has made significant strides in improving customer relations and satisfaction in recent years. According to a CCW investigation, 90% of customers were satisfied with water services in 2022, which is a slight decrease from 92% in 2017. Similarly, 85% of customers were satisfied with sewerage services, down from 88% in 2017.
Ofwat has been driving the improvement of customer service across the industry through several approaches, including outcome-based incentives such as customer satisfaction. The 2014 price review used these incentives to put the spotlight on customer management, incentivising good service and actively penalising companies through directive prices.
Customer satisfaction scores vary by water company in the UK. In 2022, Wessex Water and Northumbrian Water had the highest customer satisfaction scores among UK water and wastewater companies, according to results from Ofwat’s C-Mex Model.
To maintain and improve customer satisfaction, water companies in the UK have implemented several measures. These include investing in infrastructure to reduce leaks and interruptions in supply, providing customers with accurate and timely information about their water supply, and offering various channels for customers to provide feedback and raise complaints.
Potential Nationalization of Water Companies
There has been growing debate in the UK about the potential nationalization of water companies. The Labour Party has been a vocal supporter of this idea, arguing that water is a basic human right and should not be controlled by private companies.
The issue of nationalization has been raised in Parliament, and some companies, such as Thames Water, have reportedly been in talks with officials over contingency plans including temporary nationalization.
The argument for nationalization centres around the belief that water companies should be accountable to the public, rather than shareholders. Supporters of nationalization argue that it would allow for greater investment in infrastructure and a more equitable distribution of resources.
However, opponents of nationalization argue that it could lead to a decrease in efficiency and innovation, as well as potentially high costs to taxpayers.
It is worth noting that the water industry in England and Wales was privatized in 1989, and since then, the nine main water and sewerage companies have run up net debts of almost £54bn. Additionally, more than 70% of the industry is owned by foreign investment firms, private equity, pension funds and businesses lodged in tax havens.
Investors and Shareholders
Thames Water, the largest water supplier in the UK, is facing financial difficulties and is in need of more cash from investors. As of July 2023, the company is reportedly in talks with its shareholders to raise a further £1 billion.
According to reports, more than 70% of the English water industry is owned by foreign investment firms, private equity, pension funds, and businesses located in tax havens. Among these entities are the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS) and the Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS), both of which have significant stakes in Thames Water.
OMERS, a Canadian pension fund, is one of the largest investors in Thames Water. The fund has a 29.9% stake in the company, making it the largest shareholder. USS, a UK pension fund, also has a significant stake in Thames Water, with a 20.3% share.
Thames Water’s financial difficulties have led to concerns among its investors and shareholders. The company’s regulator, Ofwat, has stated that it has faced “huge resistance” from investors in its efforts to raise more cash.
One proposed solution to Thames Water’s financial troubles is to force the private owners to list at least 25% of the shares in their water companies on the London Stock Exchange. This proposal has been advocated by various voices, including Jonathan Ford, former FT chief leader writer.
Riding the Current: The Ebb and Flow of UK’s Water Industry
The UK water industry is a profitable business that is funded through customer bills, government grants, and borrowing. While the industry has seen improvements in customer relations and satisfaction in recent years, there is still room for improvement. The potential nationalization of water companies remains a contentious issue in the UK, with both supporters and opponents.
Thames Water, the biggest supplier in the UK, is facing financial difficulties and investors are concerned about their investments. Ultimately, it remains to be seen how these issues will play out in the coming years. In order to ensure that customers have access to safe and reliable water services at an affordable price, it is essential that all stakeholders approach this issue from a position of understanding and compromise.